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King Daughter Says Her Mother’s Papers Should Be Published

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King Daughter Says Her Mother's Papers Should Be Published

A coffee break in the United States and elsewhere is a short mid-morning rest period granted to employees in business and industry. An afternoon coffee break, or afternoon tea, often occurs as well.

The coffee break originated in the late 19th century in Stoughton, Wisconsin, with the wives of Norwegian immigrants. The city celebrates this every year with the Stoughton Coffee Break Festival. In 1951, Time noted that

“Since the war, the coffee break has been written into union contracts”

The term subsequently became popular through a Pan-American Coffee Bureau ad campaign of 1952 which urged consumers, “Give yourself a Coffee-Break – and Get What Coffee Gives to You” John B. Watson, a behavioral psychologist who worked with Maxwell House later in his career, helped to popularize coffee breaks within the American culture.

Coffee breaks usually last from 10 to 20 minutes and occur frequently at the end of the first third of the work shift.

In some companies and some civil service, the coffee break may be observed formally at a set hour. In some places, a cart with hot and cold beverages and cakes, breads and pastries arrives at the same time morning and afternoon, an employer may contract with an outside caterer for daily service, or coffee breaks may take place away from the actual work- area in a designated cafeteria or tea room.

More generally, the phrase “coffee break” has also come to denote any break from work. Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. At least 1,100 years ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea.

At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries. This beverage was known as qishr (kisher in modern usage) and was used during religious ceremonies.

Coffee drinking was prohibited by jurists and scholars meeting in Mecca in 1511, but the subject of whether it was intoxicating was hotly debated over the next 30 years until the ban was finally overturned in the mid-16th century. Use in religious rites among the Sufi branch of Islam led to coffee’s being put on trial in Mecca: it was accused of being a heretical substance, and its production and consumption were briefly repressed.

Coffee, regarded as a Muslim drink, was prohibited by Ethiopian Orthodox Christians until as late as 1889; it is now considered a national drink of Ethiopia for people of all faiths. Its early association in Europe with rebellious political activities led to Charles II outlawing coffeehouses from January 1676. Frederick the Great banned it in Prussia in 1777 for nationalistic and economic reasons.

“Concerned about the price of import, he sought to force the public back to consuming beer”

Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks. In its teachings, the Church encourages members to avoid tea, coffee, and other stimulants.

Abstinence from coffee, tobacco, and alcohol by many Adventists has afforded a near-unique opportunity for studies to be conducted within that population group on the health effects of coffee drinking, free from confounding factors.

One study was able to show a weak but statistically significant association between coffee consumption and mortality from ischemic heart disease, other cardiovascular disease, all cardiovascular diseases combined, and all causes of death. For a time, there had been controversy in the Jewish community.

Whether the coffee seed was a legume and therefore prohibited for Passover. Upon petition from coffeemaker Maxwell House, the coffee seed was classified in 1923 as a berry rather than a seed by orthodox Jewish rabbi Hersch Kohn, and therefore kosher for Passover.

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Thomas Becket at British Museum overview: this story however resonates

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Thomas Becket at British Museum review: this story still resonates
T

he 850th anniversary of the beginning of the excellent Londoner, Thomas Becket, was in 2020 and this exhibition was at first timed to coincide with it. Alas, you-know-what place paid out to the celebrations, so the British Museum is now marking the 851st anniversary of his birth. No make any difference. The sources aren’t specific about dates and this is as superior a calendar year as any to see the wonderful artefacts brought jointly to mark Becket’s existence and loss of life. Chief of them are the stunning stained glass home windows from Canterbury Cathedral, which glow in fantastical blues and assorted greens and yellows and purples. They are taken from the leading of tall windows… this may be the very first time in 800 several years that it’s been possible to see the energetic depth of the stories in the glass this shut up.

But there is significantly apart from. As we know, Becket was struck down at the altar of Canterbury Cathedral in 1170  by four of the king’s knights – a person of whom stirred up his spilled brains with the stage of his sword. What is impressive is how rapid the story unfold close to Europe, how fast Becket was canonised later on and how common devotion to him became. There are two eye-catching loans from Sweden: a person, a beautiful baptismal font from a small rural parish church, displaying the king offering orders to 1 knight, even though the many others set out, like so many Noggins the Nog, to do his bidding. One more is a copper reliquary exhibiting the execution the lid is adorned with two dragons’ heads, like a Viking longship.

a copper reliquary exhibiting the execution

The show brings household both Becket’s London origins and its, and his, cosmopolitanism. He was born in Cheapside (there’s no point out below of the legend that his mother was, excitingly, a Saracen princess) and the curators have gone to pains to counsel the vitality of the twelfth-century town. There are bone skates to display how boys skated on the frozen river, some gaming pieces, and a stone capital, with entwined serpents, from a church that Thomas would have recognised. Thomas may perhaps have spoken French at dwelling his father was a service provider in a polyglot mercantile town he went to Paris to review: the world he inhabited was nearly anything but inward-wanting.

Depth of Canterbury Cathedral’s Wonder window demonstrating the castration of Eilward of Westoning

/ The Chapter, Canterbury Cathedral

There are objects he owned right here – Thomas’s own (antique Roman) seal and an illuminated gospel he commissioned. There are treasures from his time which include a twelfth-century mitre, considered to be just one he left in France in his exile, and an alabaster panel showing his consecration, with traces of its vivid colours. England was popular in the middle ages for exquisite needlework and carved alabaster.

But it is not just static objects there’s an powerful dramatic rendering of the murder projected on the wall. It concludes with the Tudors and the banning of Becket by a further undesirable King Henry – the Eighth. Finest of all, there’s a reliquary at the end, with an actual tiny little bit of his skull – cue for a set off warning as you enter. This tale resonates, even now.

Thomas Becket: murder and the making of a saint. British Museum. 20 Might-22 August

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